Forging is the process of pressing a solid block of metal between forging "dies" that shape the block into shapes that more and more closely resemble a wheel. Forging aligns the metal's "grain" in a direction consistent with the desired contour of the wheel. The immense pressure creates a finished product that is very dense, strong, and lightweight. Following the forging process, the "blank" is placed into a CNC machine that cuts and tools the metal until the final wheel design is obtained.
As it's sometimes referred to by Washi Beam, "super forged" or die forged takes this concept one step further, by employing increasingly defined, or detailed, dies to forge the billet closer to the final shape. Benefits include enhanced strength and reduced time spent on the CNC machine. Drawbacks include slower overall production times, higher manufacturing costs, and therefore increased costs to the consumer.
Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machines are the leading resource for the final tooling of wheels. Post-forging there's still much to done to create the finer details, such as windows or scalloping, as well as application-specific requirements, such as centerbore and bolt pattern. In many ways, the CNC machine creates the final character and identity of the wheel.
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and if you're on a budget -- to show that OEM are better than Replicas, or that you can refinish a vintage set on your own.